Category History

Sending Children via Parcel Post

From The Smithsonian’s Flickr page:

This city letter carrier posed for a humorous photograph with a young boy in his mailbag. After parcel post service was introduced in 1913, at least two children were sent by the service. With stamps attached to their clothing, the children rode with railway and city carriers to their destination. The Postmaster General quickly issued a regulation forbidding the sending of children in the mail after hearing of those examples.

(via Kottke)

Photos From the RFK Funeral Train

From The Year in Pictures:

To put it simply and truly, these pictures are my favorite body of work in photography. They were taken on June 8, 1968, from inside the funeral train that carried Robert Kennedy’s body from New York to Washington so that he could be buried beside his brother at Arlington. The photo-
grapher Paul Fusco had been assigned the story by LOOK Magazine and on what turned out to be an unusually hot Saturday, close to a million people – black and white, rich and poor, young and old, singly and in groups – spontaneously came out to pay their respects to the man who had inspired so many Americans.

(via Gerry Canavan)

Server Issues

Update 2:

(IGNORE the orange template. Just testing something

Currently have 3 support tickets open. Not a happy Dreamhost customer at the moment. Here’s what’s happened.

This blog has grown to the point where shared hosting is no longer a feasible option. On Friday, Dreamhost moved this site to a VPS with a scalable memory/processor option. Within 24 hours, I was maxed out at 2 Gigs of memory and the site was slow to the point where I could barely get on, nevermind update. I put in a support ticket and I got a quick response saying:

If you like I can try installing our process watcher (it runs on shared
hosting machines and will kill runaway processes you have). Bear in mind
though it’s not a fix (really you would want to find and disable
inefficient code or any loops you have that might be causing the resource
usage).

Since sending them an email to tell them to start the process watcher, the memory usage has doubled (before that it was using a measly 1.2Gigs of mem) and I’ve deactivated all wordpress plugins. I’ve sent in two more support tickets asking for help in trying to isolate what is causing all the memory usage and so far have received no help from them. My patience is starting to wear thin with their support. I’m currently looking for other hosting, dedicated or vps but I’m still concerned with the amount of memory being used by wordpress. It’s possible that there’s some rogue script that’s eating memory and perhaps a brand new install would work but I’m hoping to get some support from Dreamhost before I make that move.

If anybody has any suggestions, similar experiences, or Zoloft, send me an email at cc@cynical-c.com (email hasn’t had any problems).

Update:

Still having major problems with the site slowing down or not working at all. I’m trying to resolve it through my current host but I have the suspicion that the problem is that this blog has just outgrown what my current host (Dreamhost) is able to handle. If anybody has any suggestions for dedicated hosting that can handle a wordpress blog that gets over 10,000 hits a day, please email me at cc@cynical-c.com.

I’m having some problems with the server. I have a support ticket open and hopefully it’s only a minor hiccup.

Hebrew Press in 1932: Hitler makes better impression than expected

From Haaretz.com:

The Mandate-era Hebrew press watched with wonder mixed with concern at the unprecedented political phenomenon that surfaced in those years in Germany: the rapid gains of the Nazi party until it took over the government.

Ilana Novetsky-Bendet, a doctoral student at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, is researching the Hebrew press’ attitude toward events in Germany from the time of the emergence of the Nazis as a significant political force, until World War II. In Bendet’s master’s thesis, which covers the period up until Hitler’s rise to power, she found that the Hebrew press showed an interest in and followed the growing strength of the Nazis as early as the late 1920s. However, the papers in Palestine had trouble discerning Hitler’s political power and the centrality of the racist component of the party’s ideology.

“The more the party’s electoral power increased, the greater the interest in it,” says Bendet, whose mentor for her doctoral thesis is Prof. Moshe Zimmerman. “But hardly any of the papers grasped the severity of Nazi anti-Semitism.”

Only one paper took a completely contrary position to Hitler’s ascendance: Hazit Ha’am, the journal of the right-wing of the Revisionists. “If the segments of our people draw the appropriate conclusions from the Hitlerism, then we will be able to say that something good came out of a bad situation,” the paper stated a few days after Hitler’s appointment as chancellor.

The paper even praised certain foundations of the Nazi ideology, primarily its fight against communism: “the anti-Semitic husk should be discarded, but not its anti-Marxist inside,” the paper’s editors wrote of Nazism. The praise of Nazism stopped only after the intervention of Ze’ev Jabotinsky, who called for “a total end to this abomination.” Around two years later, in 1935, Hazit Ha’am folded.

(via Digg)

Civil War Letters of William (Billy) A. Elliott

From CivilWarHome.com:

The following letters are reasonably accurate transcriptions of handwritten letters from Billy (William A.) Elliott to his father, Dick Elliott (Richard W.), during the Civil War. Billy Elliott was my father’s great uncle, the brother of his grandfather David Elliott Sr. On July 7, 1862, shortly after his 19th birthday, Billy enlisted in the 11th Regiment, Company A, of the North Carolina Confederate Troops. He was killed at the Battle of Gettysburg on July 1, 1863.

Billy’s 19 letters home were written between September, 1862 and May, 1863. I’m emotionally touched by this twenty year old boy writing to his “Pa” during the year before giving his life to the history of our nation. The cause for which Billy fought and died has been harshly judged by history. From the Confederate perspective, however, their discomfort and suffering was as noble as that of their Revolutionary War forefathers nearly 100 years before. One must understand that Billy came from a family, my ancestors, who were not Plantation masters but pioneers of the Carolina wilderness who fully believed that theirs was a cause against a Northern Revolution intent on tearing apart the fabric of their history and freedom. The written history of my family and these letters from an ancestor allow this life-long Yankee to judge the Confederate spirit and conviction in a little more even-handed manner.

Julius Caesar and the Pirates

From Livius.org:

In 75, Julius Caesar was captured by Cilician pirates, who infested the Mediterranean sea. The Romans had never sent a navy against them, because the pirates offered the Roman senators slaves, which they needed for their plantations in Italy. As a consequence, piracy was common.

In chapter 2 of his Life of Julius Caesar, the Greek author Plutarch of Chaeronea (46-c.120) describes what happened when Caesar encountered the pirates. The translation below was made by Robin Seager.

First, when the pirates demanded a ransom of twenty talents, Caesar burst out laughing. They did not know, he said, who it was that they had captured, and he volunteered to pay fifty. Then, when he had sent his followers to the various cities in order to raise the money and was left with one friend and two servants among these Cilicians, about the most bloodthirsty people in the world, he treated them so highhandedly that, whenever he wanted to sleep, he would send to them and tell them to stop talking.

For thirty-eight days, with the greatest unconcern, he joined in all their games and exercises, just as if he was their leader instead of their prisoner. He also wrote poems and speeches which he read aloud to them, and if they failed to admire his work, he would call them to their faces illiterate savages, and would often laughingly threaten to have them all hanged. They were much taken with this and attributed his freedom of speech to a kind of simplicity in his character or boyish playfulness.

However, the ransom arrived from Miletus and, as soon as he had paid it and been set free, he immediately manned some ships and set sail from the harbor of Miletus against the pirates. He found them still there, lying at anchor off the island, and he captured nearly all of them. He took their property as spoils of war and put the men themselves into the prison at Pergamon. He then went in person to [Marcus] Junius, the governorof Asia, thinking it proper that he, as praetor in charge of the province, should see to the punishment of the prisoners. Junius, however, cast longing eyes at the money, which came to a considerable sum, and kept saying that he needed time to look into the case.

Caesar paid no further attention to him. He went to Pergamon, took the pirates out of prison and crucified the lot of them, just as he had often told them he would do when he was on the island and they imagined that he was joking.

The Riot That Never Was

From the BBC Radio 4:

In January 1926, 12 years before Orson Welles’s infamous War of the Worlds broadcast, the BBC sparked a national panic of its own…

On January 16, 1926, one Father Ronald Knox, a catholic priest, interrupted an apparently genuine BBC talk on 18th century literature with a report that Big Ben had been toppled by trench mortars, the Savoy Hotel torched, and a Government minister lynched.

The Russian revolution was then less than a decade old, the General Strike already in preparation.

In this febrile atmosphere, many took Knox’s satire seriously, besieging the BBC with worried phone calls. Bad weather delayed delivery of the next day’s papers, giving rural listeners prolonged reason to assume the capital was in flames.

The BBC made several announcements later that evening that the progamme had been ‘a burlesque’ but these assurances went largely unheard

Timeline of the Great Depression

From 1920 to 1945. I’ll post the highlights from 1930:

1930

* By February, the Federal Reserve has cut the prime interest rate from 6 to 4 percent. Expands the money supply with a major purchase of U.S. securities. However, for the next year and a half, the Fed will add very little money to the shrinking economy. (At no time will it actually pull money out of the system.) Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon announces that the Fed will stand by as the market works itself out: “Liquidate labor, liquidate stocks, liquidate real estate… values will be adjusted, and enterprising people will pick up the wreck from less-competent people.” (More)

* The Smoot-Hawley Tariff passes on June 17. With imports forming only 6 percent of the GNP, the 40 percent tariffs work out to an effective tax of only 2.4 percent per citizen. Even this is compensated for by the fact that American businesses are no longer investing in Europe, but keeping their money stateside. The consensus of modern economists is that the tariff made only a minor contribution to the Great Depression in the U.S., but a major one in Europe. (More)

* The first bank panic occurs later this year; a public run on banks results in a wave of bankruptcies. Bank failures and deposit losses are responsible for the contracting money supply.

* Supreme Court rules that the monopoly U.S. Steel does not violate anti-trust laws as long as competition exists, no matter how negligible.

* Democrats gain in Congressional elections, but still do not have a majority.

* The GNP falls 9.4 percent from the year before. The unemployment rate climbs from 3.2 to 8.7 percent.

Growing Up Black in Nazi Germany

From the Library of Congress:

A picture may be worth a thousand words, but the photograph taken in 1933 of a brown-skinned boy wearing a swastika in a schoolyard in Hamburg, Germany, does not begin to tell the story of the remarkable life of Hans J. Massaquoi. Mr. Massaquoi, former managing editor of Ebony magazine, has now told the story himself in his new book, Destined to Witness: Growing Up Black in Nazi Germany.

As he grew to adulthood, Mr. Massaquoi was barred from joining the German military, pursuing an education or a preparing for a professional career. Instead he became a machinist’s apprentice. After World War II, he immigrated to the United States on a student visa. Although not a citizen, he was ordered to report for military service because of a clerical error and served for two years as a paratrooper in the 82nd Airborn Division during the Korean War. He subsequently took advantage of the GI bill and earned a degree in journalism from the University of Illinois, which paved the way for a nearly 40-year career at Ebony magazine.

Asked how he survived Hitler’s reign of terror, Mr. Massaquoi credits two factors. The fact that there were so few blacks in Germany at the time made them a low priority for mass extermination. Additionally, the rapid advance of the allied troops gave Hitler “more to worry about than Hans Massaquoi.”

The Story About the Image of Che Guevara


The 5th of March 1960 the Belgian arms transport “La Coubre” exploded in Havana harbour, killing 136 people. As a staff-photographer at the Cuban newspaper “Revolution”, Alberto “Korda” Gutierrez was assigned to cover the following memorial ceremony held in Havana. Among the prominent guests were Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre. Fidel Castro held one of his endless speeches and Korda was shooting away, when Che Guevara suddenly appeared on the stage. Korda pointed his Leica at Che and managed to make two shots of him, before Che turned around and disappeared.

Back in his darkroom Korda enlarged, among others, one of the Che frames. The editor at “Revolution” picked a Castro-picture for the newspaper and returned the rest. Korda liked the Che picture and put it on the wall in his Havana-studio.

The picture was still hanging on the wall in 1967, by now tobacco-tinted though, when a man knocked on the door. The person did not present himself, but handed over a letter of introduction from a high-ranking member of the Cuban administration. The letter asked Korda to help this person in his search for a good Che picture. Korda pointed at the wall saying: “This is my best Che picture”. The visitor agreed and asked for 2 copies of the print. Korda told him to return the next day, which he did. When asked the price of the prints, Korda replied, that since the visitor was a friend of the revolution, he didn’t have to pay.


Creative Commons License